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Writing Your Own Recipes


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The incredible power of Blitz Recipes isn't limited to the official recipes in the Blitz repo. The API for building recipes is a public API (although one that is subject to change) exposed via the @blitzjs/installer package, which can be installed into your own scripts to write a completely custom recipe. Combined with the power of jscodeshift for transforming existing files, fully automated code migrations are first-class citizens in the Blitz ecosystem. In fact, in the future we hope that upgrading Blitz will actually be possible with a quick blitz install blitz@1.0.0.


To author your own recipe, you'll want to create a new package and install a couple of dependencies. You'll only need the jscodeshift dependencies if you're using a transform step to modify an existing file. If you're only creating new files or adding dependencies you'll only need @blitzjs/installer.

If you're going to be writing tests for your recipe you'll need a build and test setup. We recommend tsdx and Jest for building and running tests.

yarn add -EL @blitzjs/installer jscodeshift @types/jscodeshift

The Recipe API all revolves around the RecipeBuilder factory. Blitz assumes that the file referenced in the main field of your package.json has a recipe as its default export, so we can go ahead and set that up.

// package.json
  "main": "index.ts"
// index.ts
import { RecipeBuilder } from "@blitzjs/installer"

export default RecipeBuilder().build()

Adding Metadata

In addition to the actual steps of the recipe, we require that the developer supply metadata about the recipe. This allows us to display some information to the user about what they're installing, as well as where they can look for support if they need it.

  .setName("My Package")
    "A little bit of information about what exactly is being installed."
  .setOwner("Fake Author <>")

This is a pretty good start, and is actually all we need to create an executable recipe that a user can run via blitz install. However, it's not very useful because we don't actually have any steps for the installer framework to execute. Keep reading to learn about the different actions we can execute.

Common API

Each action type has a shared interface for defining a "step" in the recipe. This ensures consistency in the user experience and enables us to provide a pleasant installation experience. Each step that gets added must have a string ID that's used to internally track the progress of the installation, a display name, and an explanation for what the step is doing.

interface Config {
  stepId: string
  stepName: string
  explanation: string

Eventually we expect to provide hooks into the recipe lifecycle, making some of the metadata like stepId critical.

Adding Dependencies

The first action we can take is adding dependencies to the user's application. This step type will automatically detect whether the user is using yarn or npm and use the proper tool. The configuration is very straightforward — it accepts a list of packages, their versions, and whether or not they should be installed as a devDependency.

  stepId: "addDeps",
  stepName: "Add npm dependencies",
  explanation: `We'll install the Tailwind library itself, as well as PostCSS for removing unused styles from our production bundles.`,
  packages: [
    { name: "tailwindcss", version: "1" },
    { name: "postcss-preset-env", version: "latest", isDevDep: true },

Adding files

One incredibly powerful part of recipes is the ability to generate files from templates.

We use a custom templating language that's natural to both read and write. Read our template documentation to learn how to write templates.

By supplying the templateValues configuration, you can either supply a hard-coded object for values to interpolate in the template or a function that returns an object. The function will be passed any additional arguments passed to blitz install (e.g. blitz install myrecipe --someConfig=false). The template files can go anywhere in your recipe's file structure, you supply the path as a part of the recipe definition.

import { join } from "path"

  stepId: "addStyles",
  stepName: "Add base Tailwind CSS styles",
  explanation: `Next, we need to actually create some stylesheets! These stylesheets can either be modified to include global styles for your app, or you can stick to using classnames in your components.`,
  targetDirectory: "./app",
  templatePath: join(__dirname, "templates", "styles"),
  templateValues: {},

Modifying existing files

Arguably the most powerful part of Blitz recipes, using JSCodeShift you can write a transform that will modify an existing file. The transform function is passed the AST representing the selected file, an object for building new nodes, and an object to assist with typechecking and assertions on nodes. ASTExplorer is a great place to get familiar with the AST structures and to play around with transforms. For best results, use the @babel/parser for the parser setting, and jscodeshift for the transform setting.

Blitz supplies some predefined transforms for you for the most common cases, but you can always write a custom transform to modify any JavaScript file you want. We also provide a convenience utility for accessing common files like _app.tsx or blitz.config.js. If the file path is a glob pattern, the installer process will prompt the user to select a file matching the pattern.

import { addImport, paths } from "@blitzjs/installer"
import j from "jscodeshift"
import Collection from "jscodeshift/src/Collection"

  stepId: "importStyles",
  stepName: "Import stylesheets",
  explanation: `Finaly, we can import the stylesheets we created, into our application. For now we'll put them in document.tsx, but if you'd like to only style a part of your app with tailwind you could import the styles lower down in your component tree.`,
  transform(program: Collection<j.Program>) {
    const stylesImport = j.importDeclaration(
    return addImport(program, stylesImport)!

Because transforms are self-contained functions that execute on ASTs, you can actually unit test this part of your installer, which is incredibly helpful for reliability. Using jscodeshift directly along with snapshot testing, the tests are quick to write:

import j from "jscodeshift"
import { customTsParser } from "@blitzjs/installer"

const sampleFile = `export default function Comp() {
  return <div>hello!</div>;
    j(sampleFile, {
      parser: customTsParser,

Modifying Non-JS files

Not all modifications can be performed using jscodeshift. For any other transformations, you can use transformPlain:

     singleFileSearch: "",
     transformPlain(readme: string) {
       return readme + "\n" + "Paul Plain was here!"

This step would append "Paul Plain was here!" to the user's

Creating a custom message

Sometimes you need to print a simple message, or give some instructions, you can achieve that with printMessage

  successIcon: "ℹ️",
  stepId: "oops",
  stepName: "Contributors needed!",
  message: "If you like this recipe, consider helping out!",

This step would print "If you like this recipe, consider helping out!" to terminal and wait for the user to go to the next step.

Custom step icons

If you want to customize your recipe even further, you can pass an optional successIcon param to your steps.

     successIcon: "🔧",

Modifying Prisma schemas

A lot of recipes may need to add or modify models in the schema.prisma file in order to apply the recipe's effects. You can attempt to manipulate the schema using plain string transformations in transformPlain, but a lot of recipes may require the ability to query something about the schema first. For example, to determine the model on the other end of a Relation, or to detect if a field already exists.

For your convenience, there are several pre-written utilities for common schema modifications:

Create an Enum
singleFileSearch: paths.prismaSchema(),
transformPlain(source: string) {
  // Create the enum Role with two values, USER and ADMIN
  return addPrismaEnum(source, {
    type: "enum",
    name: "Role",
    enumerators: [
      {type: "enumerator", name: "USER"},
      {type: "enumerator", name: "ADMIN"},
Add a Field to a Model
singleFileSearch: paths.prismaSchema(),
transformPlain(source: string) {
  // Add a field "name String @unique" to the "Project" model
  return addPrismaField(source, "Project", {
    type: "field",
    name: "name",
    fieldType: "String",
    optional: false,
    attributes: [{type: "attribute", kind: "field", name: "unique"}],
Create a Generator
singleFileSearch: paths.prismaSchema(),
transformPlain(source: string) {
  // Create a prisma generator for nexus-prisma
  return addPrismaGenerator(source, {
    type: "generator",
    name: "nexusPrisma",
    assignments: [
      {type: "assignment", key: "provider", value: '"nexus-prisma"'},
Create a Model
singleFileSearch: paths.prismaSchema(),
transformPlain(source: string) {
  // Create a prisma model called Project
  return addPrismaModel(source, {
    type: "model",
    name: "Project",
    properties: [{type: "field", name: "name", fieldType: "String"}],
Add an Attribute such as an Index to a Model
singleFileSearch: paths.prismaSchema(),
transformPlain(source: string) {
  // Creates an index attribute on the Project model "@@index([name])"
  return addPrismaModelAttribute(source, "Project", {
    type: "attribute",
    kind: "model",
    name: "index",
    args: [
      {type: "attributeArgument", value: {type: "array", args: ["name"]}},
Set the schema's Datasource

Since a prisma schema can only have one data source, there is no "add" utility, this will replace the schema's current data source.

singleFileSearch: paths.prismaSchema(),
transformPlain(source: string) {
  // Set the datasource to postgresql
  return setPrismaDataSource(source, {
    type: "datasource",
    name: "db",
    assignments: [
      {type: "assignment", key: "provider", value: '"postgresql"'},
        type: "assignment",
        key: "url",
        value: {type: "function", name: "env", params: ['"DATABASE_URL"']},
Custom Schema Transformations with produceSchema

If the provided helpers aren't flexible enough for your recipe, you can use the produceSchema utility function to parse the prisma schema file and apply custom transformations. It will convert the schema into a JSON object format that you can modify using JavaScript, then print the schema (with your changes applied) back out to a string. All of the above helpers are implemented using produceSchema.

  singleFileSearch: paths.prismaSchema(),
  transformPlain(source: string) {
    return produceSchema(source, (schema) => {
      // find a model named "User"
      const model = schema.list.find(function(item): item is Model {
        return item.type === "model" && === "User"
      }) as Model
      if (!model) return

      // find a field on the "User" model named "email"
      const field = (property): property is Field {
        return property.type === "attribute" && === "email"
      if (!field) return

      // add the "@unique" attribute to "email"
        type: "attribute",
        kind: "field",
        name: "unique"

It is a best practice for schema transformations to be idempotent, meaning that the function should not attempt to make a change to the schema if that change already has been made. For instance, do not add a field to a model if that field already exists.

To see how the schema file is parsed, click here.


That's all you need to build a recipe! At this point, you can commit and push up to GitHub, and your recipe is available to the world. Users can install your recipe by passing your full repository name to blitz install - for example:

blitz install some-githubuser/my-awesome-recipe

Testing locally

To test your recipe locally without publishing it you can run

blitz install /path/to/your/recipes/index.ts

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